pet

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

Polyethylenterepthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (CHEBI:131701) is a synthetic polymer of repeating units of terephthalic acid (CHEBI:30043) and ethylene glycol (CHEBI:30742). PET is mainly used for the production of PET bottles, foil and various fibers in textile industry. PET is one of the few polymers, for which a number of microbial enzymes are known. They belong to the cutinases (EC 3.1.1.74), lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) and carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1.1 /EC 3.1.1.101/ EC 3.1.1.2) and can act on amorphous but not crystalline PET. These enzymes break the ester bond in the polymer to either produce bis (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET), mono (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) or terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). The enzymes act as exo-enzymes. MHET can subsequently be cleaved with a specific MHETase (EC 3.1.1.102) and the TPA monomers degraded via cleavage of the aromatic ring structure using known aryl pathways (Wei et al., 2017; Danso et al., 2019, Taniguchi et al., 2019). PET-active enzymes are often designated 'PETases'. Notably, the majority of all PET-active enzmes are promiscous enzymes.

Currently known and biochemically characterized active PET hydrolases are listed below and grouped according to their phylogenetic affiliation. Predicted and not characterized enzymes are not included. For multiple PDB entries only one lead struture is included.

In case you are aware of PET-active biochemically characterized enzymes that are not listed below, please contact the PAZY team.

Cite: Buchholz, P.C.F., Feuerriegel, G., Zhang, H., Perez-Garcia, P., Nover, L.-L., Chow, J., Streit, W.R. and Pleiss, J (2022);
Plastics degradation by hydrolytic enzymes: The Plastics-Active Enzymes Database - PAZy
(download link for reference manager)

Microbial host/enzyme/geneEC numberReferenceGenBank/ UniProt/MGnifyPDB entryNCBI BLAST
Bacteria
Pseudomonadota (synonym with Proteobacteria)
Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, ISPETase, ISF6_4831
(→DuraPETase) (→ThermoPETase) (→Fast-PETase) (→HotPETase)
EC 3.1.1.101Yoshida, 2016; Han 2017; Cui, 2021; Son, 2019; Lu, 2022; Bell, 2022A0A0K8P6T75XFY, and othersWP_054022242.1
Oleispira antarctica RB-8, PET5, LipA (=Oacut)EC 3.1.1.1Danso, 2018, Blasquez-Sanchez, 2021R4YKL9_OLEAN MBQ0729274.1
Vibrio gazogenes, PET6, BSQ33_03270 EC 3.1.1.1Danso, 2018A0A1Z2SIQ1_VIBGA 7Z6BASA57064.1
Polyangium brachysporum, PET12, AAW51_2473 EC 3.1.1.1Danso, 2018A0A0G3BI90_9BURK AKJ29164.1
Marinobacter sp., PLE628EC 3.1.1.1Cifuentes, 2022OK558825 7VMDOK558825.1
Marinobacter sp., PLE629EC 3.1.1.1Cifuentes, 2022OK558824 7VPAOK558824.1
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes DSM 50188, PpCutAEC 3.1.1.74Inglis, 2011; Haernvall, 2017, KU695574 ANP21911.1
Pseudomonas pelagia DSM 25163, PpelaLipEC 3.1.1.74Haernvall, 2017 KU695573 ANP21910.1
Pseudomonas aestusnigri VGXO14, PE-H, B7O88_11480 EC 3.1.1.1Bollinger, 2020A0A1H6AD45 6SBN, and othersWP_088276085.1
Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 53552, PmCEC 3.1.1.3Ronkvist, 2009N20M5AZM016 2FX52FX5_A
Moraxella sp.TA144, lip1, Mors1 EC 3.1.1.3 Blasquez-Sanchez, 2021P19833 P19833.1
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, PpEst (tesA) EC 3.1.1.2 Haernvall, 2017, Wallace, 2016W6R2Y2 WP_003460012.1
Pseudomonas sp., esterase MG8 EC 3.1.1.1 Eiamthong, 2022MGYP000532440779 MGYP000532440779
Pseudomonas sp. strain 9.2, EstB EC 3.1.1.1 Edwards et al., 2022WP_085690612 WP_085690612
Rhizobacter gumimpihilus NS21, RgPETase EC 3.1.1.1 Sagong, 2021A4W93_059507DZT, and othersA4W93_05950
Actinobacteriota
LCC, leaf compost metagenome, highly similar to HRB29 locus GBD22443EC 3.1.1.74Sulaiman, 2012; Shirke, 2018; Tournier, 2020G9BY574EBO and othersG9BY57.1
BhrPETase from HR29 bacterium, >96% identical to LCCEC 3.1.1.74Xi, 2021GBD224437EOAGBD22443.1
Thermobifida (Thermomonspora) fusca
T. fusca DSM43793, BTA-1, TfHEC 3.1.1.74Dresler, 2006; Müller 2005; Kleeberg 1998; 2005Q6A0I45ZOAQ6A0I4
T. fusca DSM43793, BTA-2, TfHEC 3.1.1.74Dresler, 2006; Müller 2005; Kleeberg 1998; 2005AJ810119 Q6A0I3
T. fusca DSM44342, TfH42_Cut1EC 3.1.1.74Herrereo Acero, 2011 E9LVI0_THEFU ADV92528.1
T. fusca (strain YX), WSH03-11, Tfu_0883EC 3.1.1.74Chen, 2008; Su, 2013; Lykidis, 2007 Q47RJ6_THEFY Q47RJ6
T. fusca (strain YX), WSH03-11, Tfu_0882EC 3.1.1.74Chen, 2008 Q47RJ7_THEFY Q47RJ7
T. fusca, TfCut_1 (Cut-1.kw3) (only active on 3PET; not on higher polymers!)3.1.1.101Herrereo Acero, 2011E5BBQ2 E5BBQ2
T. fusca, TfCut_2 (Cut-2.kw3)EC 3.1.1.74Furukawa, 2019, Roth, 2014; Wei 2016E5BBQ3_THEFU4CG1CBY05530
T. fusca NRRL B-8184, Cut1EC 3.1.1.74Hedge, 2013JN129499.1 AET05798.1
T. fusca NRRL B-8184, Cut2EC 3.1.1.74Hedge, 2013JN129500.1 AET05799.1
T. cellulosilytica DSM44535, Thc_Cut1EC 3.1.1.74Herrereo Acero, 2011, Ribitsch 2017ADV92526.15LUIADV92526.1
T. cellulosilytica DSM44535, Thc_Cut2EC 3.1.1.74Herrereo Acero, 2011 Ribitsch 2017ADV925715LUJADV92527.1
T. curvata DSM43183, Tcur_1278EC 3.1.1.74Wei, 2014D1A9G5 ACY96861.1
T. curvata DSM43183, Tcur0390EC 3.1.1.74Wei, 2014ACY95991.1 ACY95991.1
T. halotolerans, Thh_EstEC 3.1.1.1Ribitsch, 2012H6WX58 AFA45122.1
T. alba AHK119, Est1 (Hydrolase 4)EC 3.1.1.1Hu, 2010BAI99230 BAI99230.2
T. alba DSM43185, Tha_Cut1, cut1 EC 3.1.1.74Ribitsch, 2012E9LVH7 ADV92525.1
T. alba AHK119, Est119, est2EC 3.1.1.1Kitadokoro, 2019F7IX06 6AIDBAK48590.1
Saccharomonospora (Thermoactinomyces) viridis AHK190, Cut190EC 3.1.1.74Miyakawa, 2014; Kawai 201, Oda 2018W0TJ644WFK and othersBAO42836.1
Bacillota
Bacillus subtilis 4P3-11, BsEstB EC 3.1.1.1 Ribitsch,2011 ADH43200.1 ADH43200.1
Thermoanaerobacter sp. , PHL-7 (PES-H1; PES-H2)EC 3.1.1.74Sonnendecker, 2021; Pfaff, 20227NEI_A/B /7CUV_A, MBO2503201.17NEI; 7CUVA/7W697NEI_A / 7CUV_A
Bacteroidota
Aequorivita sp. CIP111184, PET27 EC 3.1.1.1Zhang, 2022WP_111881932 WP_111881932
Kaistella (Chryseobacterium) jeonii, PET30EC 3.1.1.1Zhang, 2022WP_0393534277PZJWP_039353427
Metagenome-derived without a phylogenetic affiliation
Metagenome-derived, no obvious affiliation, PET2, lipIAF5-2EC 3.1.1.1Danso, 2018, Nakamura, 2021ACC95208.17ECB and othersACC95208.1
Archaea
Candidatus Bathryarchaeota archaeon, PET46EC 3.1.1.73Perez-Garcia, 2022RLI42440.18B4URLI42440.1
Eukarya
Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica, lipase B, CalBEC 3.1.1.3Ronkvist, 2009, Carniel, 2017LIPB_PSEA21TCA and othersLIPB_PSEA2
Fusarium solani , FsCEC 3.1.1.74Carniel, 2017, Silva, 2005AAA33335.11AGY and othersAAA33335.1
Thermomyces (Humicola) insolens , HiCEC 3.1.1.74Ronkvist, 2009, Carniel, 2017A0A075B5G44OYL and others4OYY_A


  • pet.txt
  • Last modified: 2022/11/13 11:14
  • by Wolfgang Streit